Monday, December 17, 2007

Unlocking My Own Family’s Past Part I

My love for history has reached far beyond the classroom ever since I was a little girl, besides excitedly attending every museum my parents would take me to, I clearly remember how proud and intrigued I became as I learned that my great-grandpa, John William Everrett, had fought in World War One. My poppa, John Randall Everrett, who although named after his dad, had very little to tell me about my great-grandpa’s war time experience; when my poppa was only five years old, he had lost his father to cancer, and had always suspected that he had gotten sick from the horrible work conditions he was exposed to as successful mechanic in downtown Montreal. What my poppa did know was that John William was born in England, later moved to Canada, and had eagerly signed up to serve in the Great War. He had had the dangerous job of driving around Europe delivering messages to the front. My poppa also had a small container that was filled with the buttons, pins, and patches from his father’s wartime uniform, which he gave to me this November for my birthday, so that I can be the caretaker of our family’s history.

Until recently, I had to be satisfied with the very little I knew about his wartime experiences. This changed when one of my archive assignments required me to make a reference tool for people trying to find their relatives' war time records (I have included this at the bottom of this blog). I learned that Library and Archives Canada (LAC) has a webpage called "Soldiers of the First World War- CEF Search" where you can look up relatives’ attestation papers, which are the forms that prospective soldiers had to fill out before being admitted to the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). I quickly found John William, and using my own reference tool, ordered my great-grandpa’s full records.

I had the records sent to my parents' house, and they were waiting for me Friday night when I arrived home for Christmas Holidays. Upon reading them I found that although John William never received any medals or awards, he had an impeccable record as a soldier, and served his country well. I also learned through his medical records that while serving he was hit with Mustard Gas, which further deteriorated his already bad eye sight. Through further research, I realized that mustard gas also attacks the DNA, which often leads to cancer. This means that it might not only have been my great-grandpa’s job that made him sick, but that John William’s death was yet another casualty of the Great War.

This Christmas I am giving my poppa his father’s wartime records, in the hopes that they illuminate parts of his father’s past that my poppa never had the opportunity to ask him about.

How to Find the Records of Canadian Relatives who participated in World War I’s Armed Forces

Attestation Papers: Attestation Papers are the papers that prospective soldiers had to fill out before being admitted to the Canadian Over-Seas Expeditionary Force (CEF).

Search for your relatives attestation form at:


Full Record: once you find the attestation form, you have to mail or fax the National Archives of Canada for the full record.

  1. For help completing this process go to: <>
  2. Click “how to order a copy of the complete service file” which will explain the whole procedure and the information to include in your letter
  3. The letter should then be mailed or faxed to:

ATIP and Personnel Records Division
Library and Archives Canada
395 Wellington Street
Ottawa, ON K1A 0N4
Fax: 613-947-8456

The Canadian Virtual War Memorial: this website contains the memorials and gravesites of over 116,000 Canadians and Newfoundlanders who died in World War One. Search your relatives name and you can find information such as service number, pictures, newspaper clippings, page number in the World War One Book of Remembrance, and the burial site.

Search The Canadian Virtual War Memorial Website at:


Monday, December 10, 2007

The Long Tail: The Research Skills I Learned from Christmas Shopping

During the month of December insanity takes over, as people attempt to purchase gifts for both family and friends. I am no exception. In fact, I think that the madness of Christmas shopping has been inflicting me more since I started shopping online. My obsession with online shopping comes from something called “the long tail, which involves websites’ system of giving suggestions on books, DVDs, and various other products, that are based on the current purchase that is being made. Chris Anderson, who invented the term in his 2004 article "The Long Tail" in Wired magazine, explains that this system was created by companies like who use suggestions to lead customers to lesser known books. Anderson explains how this is changing all aspects of consumerist economy, stating:

This is not just a virtue of online booksellers; it is an example of an entirely new economic model for the media and entertainment industries, one that is just beginning to show its power. Unlimited selection is revealing truths about what consumers want and how they want to get it in service after service...People are going deep into the catalogue, down the long, long list of available titles, far past what's available at Blockbuster Video, Tower Records, and Barnes & Noble. And the more they find, the more they like.[i]

The long tail has affected my brother more than anyone else I know, allowing him to discover bands that would otherwise be virtually unknown. This consequently leads me on a frustrating, but extremely rewarding, online Christmas shopping journey to try to acquire merchandise for my brother. It seems that each year the bands that he sends me off to find are becoming more and more obscure.

However, the lessons I have learned from Christmas shopping, and in particular from my brother’s ability to unearth incredibly underrated bands, can also be applied to the way I do research. I have learned that when I find a good secondary source, I can simply search for it on, and see what other works that they can suggest. I have found that the suggestions not only recommend the important historical works on those topics that I must consult in order to present a thorough paper, but I also sometimes find little known published works. Therefore, the long tail is not only transforming the entertainment industry, it also has the potential to affect academia by bringing lesser known academic works into the hands of both amateur and professional historians alike.

[i] Anderson, Chris. “The Long Tail,” Wired 12, no. 10 (Oct 2004).

Sunday, November 11, 2007

FreeMind: The Grown Up Grade School Approach to Organizing Research

There is something exceedingly comforting about going back to the basics. This weekend I have done just that using a program called “FreeMind”. FreeMind is essentially the digital version of the brainstorming mind maps that I used to make when I was in grade school, in order to organize my thoughts and research ideas.

FreeMind starts with one “node” which is your basic idea, and then you can create as many nodes attached to that as you need, including different degrees of subtopics called “sibling” or “child” nodes. One can keep their FreeMind experience very professional and just have lines connecting words, or one can really make use of the program and enjoy the process by making it so all of the main topics have bubbles surrounding them. There are also multiple icons, such as question marks, numbers, and light bulbs, which can be added to thought bubbles to label which ideas are most important and which still need work. There is also the option of adding “notes” to specific nodes, where one could record any additional research needed on that particular topic.

I have been using FreeMind to organize my research for an exhibit I am proposing on the history of medicine. All of the sources I have been using so far have been from the web or excel spreadsheets, and I have easily been able to copy and paste artifact and archival reference numbers onto my digital mind map. In addition, I have been manipulating and maneuvering the FreeMind nodes as I find new sources, or as I change my mind about the order of importance of my research finds. This is the first mind map I have used in years, but I am definitely going to reintegrate them into my research habits, due to the efficiency in which FreeMind has enabled me to quickly organize my previously scattered thoughts.

Thursday, November 8, 2007

The Role of Memory in History

Over the last couple of weeks, I have spent a lot of time analyzing the role that memory and oral history play in presenting or writing about history. In particular, I have been wondering how I should make use of these sources as a Public Historian. My thought process began at my visit to the Canadian War Museum to gather information for my Exhibit Review. I found myself extremely conflicted about the sole reliance on oral history in Bev Tosh's travelling exhibit War Brides: Portraits of an Era. I concluded that as a historical exhibit it could be strengthened through using a wider variety of historical sources. That being said, I still found this exhibit incredibly effective and have found myself trying to articulate ever since why this exhibit spoke to me in such a profound way.

I was afforded some answers to my questions this week while I was doing some very suiting readings on oral history for my Public History course. In Alessandro Portelli’s article “The Peculiarities of Oral History” it is argued that the meaning people make from events is just as important as what actually happened. Portelli states, “What the informant believes is indeed a historical fact (that is, the fact that he or she believes it) just as much as what ‘really’ happened”[i]. I think that is why War Brides had such an impact on me (indeed, two blogs worth), because although I left with very few conventional “facts” I still had obtained an exceedingly clear conception of what being a War Bride meant to the women involved in the exhibit.

However, I still was not satisfied on how to most effectively incorporate such sources into my own work. Interestingly, this month’s issue of National Geographic cover issue “Memory: Why We Remember, Why We Forget” addresses some of these same issues. The article “Remember This” by Joshua Foer explores the neurological side of making and retaining memories. Foer speaks extensively with “AJ”, a woman who remembers everything she has done, said, or felt, every day of her life.[ii] I found myself thinking how much easier it would be to do history if everyone had the ability to retain such rich memories of their past. However, AJ herself sees her gift as a burden, stating:

I remember the good, which is very comforting. But I also remember the bad- and every bad choice,” she says. “And I really don’t give myself a break. There are all these forks in the road, moments you have to make a choice , and then it’s ten years later, and I’m still beating myself up over them. I don’t forgive myself for a lot of things. Your memory is the way to protect you. I feel like it just hasn’t protected me.[iii]

AJ’s belief that memory is supposed to protect people by allowing them to forget some of the suffering they have encountered in their lives, finally made clear to me my own perspective on this topic. It seems that the Public Historian’s role is to make sure that people are not allowed to forget the past, even if it is painful. As Michael Frisch states in his book A Shared Authority, what should be the main concern of Public Historians is “...a fundamental commitment to the importance of that verb at the heart of memory, making it something alive and active as we confront out own world.”[iv] Therefore as idealistic as it might appear, it seems that it is the Public Historian's duty to use memories and oral history to help the public to face and learn from the past.

[i] Alessandro Portelli, “The Peculiarities of Oral History,” History Workshop Journal 12 (Autumn 1981), pg. 100

[ii] Joshua Foer, “Remember This” in National Geographic, November 2007, pg. 35

[iii] Ibid, 51

[iv] Michael Frisch, “Memory, History, and Cultural Authority,” A Shared Authority:
Essays on the Craft and Meaning of Oral and Public History (New York: SUNY Press, 1990), pg. 25

Thursday, November 1, 2007

Canadian War Museum Exhibit Review

War Brides: Portraits of an Era. Travelling exhibit organized by the Canadian War Museum in collaboration with Bev Tosh, contemporary Canadian artist. On display at the Canadian War Museum from May 12, 2007 to January 8, 2007, as viewed on October 7, 2007.

The travelling exhibit, War Brides: Portraits of an Era, is an alluring artistic interpretation of the physical and emotional journey many women made to foreign countries, alongside soldiers they had met and married during World War II. The war brides include 44, 000 women who moved with their new husbands to Canada, 1,000 who moved to Newfoundland, and 4,000 who moved from Canada to other Commonwealth countries. This exhibit is based on artist Bev Tosh’s travelling exhibit One-Way Passage which was comprised solely of paintings. War Brides: Portraits of an Era is an updated version by Tosh that includes mixed media photographs and additional portraits, and is currently hosted and organized by the newly built Canadian War Museum. Since thousands of Canadians today are descendants of the war brides, Tosh’s exhibit compliments the overarching theme of the Canadian War Museum, which is to demonstrate the effect war continues to have on the country. This is an engaging exhibit which draws on the war brides’ own stories and Tosh’s artistic interpretation of these women’s experiences. Although it relies too heavily on personal accounts and not enough on the historiography, this exhibit successfully juxtaposes the romantic vision these women had when they embarked for new countries, with the harsh realities they often faced when they reached their destination.

When one enters the exhibit, the beauty of the room is striking; the walls are painted a deep plum colour, and the room glows due to strategic placement of lights, which accent the abundance of both photos and paintings of the young brides. Upon a closer inspection, the visitor also realizes that the exhibit is not only aesthetically pleasing, but is also saturated with powerful interpretations and renditions of multiple women’s lives. In particular, this exhibit aims to let the visitor experience the overwhelming range of emotions that enveloped the war brides, whose journey began with love, excitement, and happiness, and often led to loneliness and loss. Therefore the appearance of the room combined with the focus on images over heavy amounts of text, encourages the visitor to absorb the emotion of the exhibit, rather than strictly read their way through it.

The displays themselves are a unique presentation of thought provoking mixed media photographs and portraits, personalized by Tosh’s own experience as a war bride’s daughter. An example of a mixed media display is “Leap of Faith” where the picture of the Canadian Air Force war brides is projected onto a World War II parachute set up like a wedding gown. Another innovative display includes framed photographs of individual women layered overtop of objects such as barbed wire. These manipulated, war-etched photographs are then juxtaposed with the joyful scrapbook of Tosh’s parents’ “honeymoon”, and the “Wall of War Brides” which is a collection of tea stained pictures of the women and their new lovers. The variety of ways these photographs are presented demonstrates to the visitor how multifaceted the war brides experience was; in particular it emphasizes the atmosphere of war in which the relationships were formed, and imply the complications that such marriages were bound to encounter. The paintings, unlike the pictures, tend to place emphasis on life after the war. In fact, most of the paintings are part of a display called “Bride Ships” and are portraits done on wood, which are arranged to represent the ships that the women travelled on to reach their new destinations. The wooden portraits are purposely placed so they are leaning on each other to represent how heavily the war brides found themselves relying on each other.

The exhibit also contains an interactive element, in the form of a wall where visitors are urged to “Please Share your Memories”. This portion of the exhibit promotes visitors to become personally engaged. The wall is especially relevant to relatives of war brides, and most of the letters and pictures posted on the wall are from grandchildren who have come to see the exhibit, and have left messages to or about their grandmothers. That being said, those who do not have a personal relationship with a war bride are still able to feel included by having a chance to read the poignant notes left to the women by their loved ones. The creation of the memory wall and its high levels of visitor participation, demonstrates that the exhibits foremost intended audience is the war brides themselves, along with their families and descendants. In addition to the families, however, this exhibit also appeals to social historians or people who are interested in hearing a less conventional narrative about the Second World War.

The main criticism of this exhibit is that much of the information presented comes from potentially unreliable personal accounts, which is a cause for concern considering that most museum visitors completely trust eye witness accounts of historical events. On one hand, this seems unavoidable in an exhibit that focuses on involving the actual people who lived through a particular historical event; however, this exhibit would have been able to present a more balanced historical interpretation had it drawn on the contemporary historiography available on this topic. To counter this, the Canadian War Museum has provided the museum gift shop with a wide variety of academic material on the subject, for anyone interested in a more comprehensive historical account on the war brides.

To conclude, this exhibit successfully captures the complexity and depth involved in thousands of women’s decisions to move to a new country with their recently acquired wartime spouses. Although this exhibit could be strengthened through the addition of historiographical interpretations; War Brides: Portraits of an Era would still be an excellent permanent addition to the Canadian War Museum, since most of the other exhibits do not focus on social history and present more traditional militaristic historical narratives.

Sunday, October 28, 2007

Digitize First, Cutback Later

Over the last couple of months, Library and Archives Canada (LAC) has received plenty of criticism over their decision to reduce their hours. Frustration and dissatisfaction has been mounting towards LAC who repeatedly defends the cutbacks based on the claim that many of the archives resources are now available online. This decision was explained on their website on August 9, 2007, stating:

...we are adjusting our hours of operation, in keeping with the anticipated needs of clients and evolving information technologies. We are steadily adding documentary heritage material to our website, thereby increasing access to the collection for Canadians both in the National Capital Region and across the country.[i]

Clearly, it makes sense for LAC to encourage the public to access their expanding online collection. By digitizing their archives they are engaging in an increasingly popular conservation strategy, while simultaneously making their resources more accessible to a wider range of users. I can imagine for historians who live half-way across our very large country (or even for Ontarians such as myself who still live a solid six hour drive away from Ottawa) that it would be very convenient if researchers could gain access to the National Archives from their own homes. Furthermore, as much as LAC is currently being criticized, they do seem to be making significant improvements to the usability of their digitized collection.

LAC has stabilized their website and has improved its ability to handle the increased demand. Also, the website has replaced the outdated ArchivaNet: Online Research Tool, with the more comprehensive and thorough Archives Search, which allows users to search within archives, library, ancestors, and the website, or specify if they would like to search within one in particular. In addition, Archives Search allows for the user to make very precise searches of LAC’s holdings; researchers can specify the type of materials, the hierarchical level (such as fonds/collection, series, file, etc.), or the specific dates of the resources they seek. Finally, the search also lets the user know whether the document they want is available online or offline.

This is where things get tricky. As the Globe and Mail reported on September 29, 2007, it is currently estimated that only 1% of LAC’s holdings are currently digitized.[ii] In this way, the cutbacks on the hours of operation were not only pre-mature, but worthy of the Canadian public’s indignation. It is admirable to work towards improving the ability to search and use online collections, but until a much larger holding has been created, it is unfair to restrict the publics’ access to their national archives.

*Picture is of the sculpture “The Secret Bench of Knowledge” by Lea Vivot, which is found in front of LAC

[i] “New Hours of Operation” in What’s New, 9 August 2007 (28 October 2007)

[ii] Val Ross, “ Service Cuts at Ottawa’s Archives rile Researchers” in The Globe and Mail, Print Edition 29/09/07 Page R6

Sunday, October 21, 2007

Zotero Might Change my Life...

I must admit that I am becoming increasingly addicted to the digital world. I love the ease in which I can quickly scope out what has been written on the topics I am researching by using an internet search engine. It makes me enraged when such searches are hindered due to slow internet access, or if wireless internet is not available and I am forced to sit wherever I can plug in. I also cannot imagine what it would be like to do research without access to online journals via JSTOR. In fact, it makes me mad when I have to go to the library to photocopy journal articles that have not been digitized. Furthermore, Zotero, a Firefox extension that allows users to capture and organize web pages, is a research device which I have recently been introduced to, and is changing the way I organize my research.

I am well aware that this all makes me sound like a hypocrite after so strongly professing my attachment and enduring love for smelly books in one of my previous posts. But I am sticking with my belief that books and computers work together. For instance when it comes to a long read, I will always prefer reading off of paper as opposed to on a screen. But when doing initial research and searches for information, I always rely heavily on the internet.

In this way, I think that Zotero has the possibility of changing the way I do research. Before Zotero I filled bookmark folders with random websites that I thought I might eventually, sort of, kind of, maybe use for an upcoming project. Zotero allows the user to add notes to folders so that they can document, amongst other things, why they thought they might need that information. In addition, as my previous rage towards slow or inconvenient internet access made clear, being able to use the information stored on Zotero while offline is a major asset. The best part, however, is the cleanliness of it all. I waste so many sheets of paper jotting down bibliographic information, websites, and book titles. Now I can store all of these things neatly on Zotero. I am still figuring out all that Zotero has to offer me, but so far, I think Zotero might change my life.

Sunday, September 30, 2007

Historical Truth vs. Historical Gossip

Since I began taking university level history courses (and note it was not until that point) it has been ingrained in me that there is no one historical truth, but many historical interpretations. Still, I cannot help but search to find guidelines that will help me to create the most accurate historical interpretations that I can. Elena Cherney addressed some of these issues that have been occupying my thoughts in her article “The Tell-All that Doesn’t” which was featured in last Saturday’s Globe and Mail. [i]

Cherney illustrates that over the years biographers of the famous pianist, Glenn Gould, have collectively kept his lover’s identity secret; it was literally not until a few weeks ago that an article in the Toronto Star identified Cornelia Foss, the wife of the famous American composer Lukas Foss, as Gould’s lover. This article was only written because Foss chose to finally come forward and let the world know that she was the woman who had participated in this great affair. This is the crucial part of the story, because it was Ms. Foss, not the biographers, who finally decided to present the whole story on this public figure.

Cherney makes her opinion on the matter clear as she states, “The unexpected account highlights the striking decision by most Gould scholars to keep his lover’s identity quiet all these years. Ms. Foss’s willingness to be identified opens new avenues of research for Gould scholars that could have been probed years ago – when more sources were alive.” When probing biographers about why they would make this decision, most responded that they refrained from including information that would hurt a living person. This idea was reinforced when the authoritative biographer of Gould, Kevin Bazzana, who shared a wealth of unflattering material on Gould, but left out Ms. Foss and other lovers’ names, explained that he “...did it out of niceness.”

I understand where these biographers are coming from; while one of their subjects is alive it would be hard to be the one to expose their secrets to the rest of the world. At the same time, however, Cherney makes a very good point when she states that the biographers concern about hurt feelings is, “at odds with the biographer’s duty to history: If a name is excluded out of kindness, a piece of the puzzle could be lost forever.”

As much as I understand the biographers' anguish, I agree with Cherney. For one thing, even if the subjects are dead, by revealing a person’s sexual secrets, the writer is always at risk of upsetting family members or descendants who are still living. I think the better way for biographers to decide where to draw the line, is by analyzing whether they are revealing lovers for the sake of a true historical account, or to sensationalize their story. This article made it clear that in today’s society biographers are encouraged to tell all, because it makes their story more marketable and interesting. If the objective, however, is to create an honest historical account, the truth needs to be told, without turning the story into a malicious gossip column.

[i] Elena Cherney, “The Tell-All that Doesn’t,” in The Globe and Mail, Print Edition 22/09/07 Page F9

Thursday, September 20, 2007

Buffy and the Digital Era

When exploring ideas that surround Digital History, I can’t help but think back to one of the original episodes of the popular television show Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The episode “I Robot...You Jane” aired in mid 1997, and is about an ancient demon who is let loose onto the internet through the digitizing of old books. He then proceeds to gain access to the infinite amounts of information and resources that the World Wide Web has to offer him.

I know that by using the words “vampire slayer” and “demon” I may have lost readers already, but this show highlights very real fears that a lot of people still share today. No one can deny the existence of demons on the internet, such as the hundreds of viruses that are created and unleashed on our computers each day. Furthermore, this episode summarizes two extreme opinions held with regard to technology. The high school Librarian, Rupert Giles, argues against people becoming slaves to technology and proclaims his preference for books. The stereotypical computer nerd Fritz ominously responds, “The printed page is obsolete, information isn’t bound up anymore, it’s an entity, the only reality is virtual, if you are not jacked in you're not alive.” [i]

Watching this episode ten years after it was originally aired, I still find myself conflicted between both of these responses to the digital era. I am concerned about the idea of replacing bound books with digitized copies. Reading for me is more than a mere mental exercise; it is a physical, tactile experience that involves turning, highlighting, and writing notes in the margins of each page. Giles would very much agree with me, as in this same episode he notes the power of the sense of smell that is evoked through the “smelly” experience of reading old books.

That being said, there are many aspects of technology that I have completely embraced. It is because of the invention of DVDs that I am able to watch long past episodes of Buffy whenever I please. I also feel as if my iPod, cell phone, and laptop have become extensions of my body. More importantly, however, is that fact that as an Historian I cannot imagine attempting to study history without the aid of search engines and online databases. There are many journal articles and resources that I never would have read or had easy access to had they not been digitized.

In conclusion, I have decided that similarly to Giles, I am not ready to give up the tactile experience of reading bound books; I truly hope that Libraries never cease to fill their shelves with these wonderfully smelly things, if for nothing else but to leave something tangible for future generations to hold in their hands. I am, however, prepared to continue to open my mind to all that technology has to offer me. After all, my books and computer have been living and working together in perfect harmony on my desk for years.

[i] “I Robot...You Jane,” Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season One, dir. Stephen Posey, 6 hours, Mutant Enemy Inc., 1997, DVD.

Sunday, September 16, 2007

The “Public” Part of Being an Historian

As I begin my graduate school experience I have found myself rather conflicted as I attempt to define the kind of Historian I want to be/become. As a Public Historian, this type of self reflection seems especially important as it will be my job to try to appeal to a large and diverse audience. This itself seems to be a bit of a daunting task, which has been demonstrated quite clearly by the current War Museum Controversy.

The conflict that has erupted in Ottawa at the War Museum in the World War Two section over 67 words written about the British and Commonwealth countries’ “Bomber Command”, demonstrates the challenges the Public Historian will inevitably face; it will always be virtually impossible to please all members of the community, especially when dealing with emotional historical events. The issue is over a panel that explains how the morality and effectiveness of Bomber Command is still being debated today. Canada's National Council of Veterans Associations found the thought that people actually debate this fact to be offensive, and after two years of protests have finally succeeded in convincing the War Museum to re-write the panel. Margret MacMillan, who was asked by the War Museum to read and give her opinion on the Bomber Command panel, stated that the wording was correct, and any adjustments would make Canada appear cowardly.[i]

I share MacMillian’s sentiments and was quite disappointed about the War Museum’s decision. I first became acquainted with the debates that exist among Historians on this topic in my fourth year history class, when after being exposed to extensive literature on World War Two and Bomber Command, it was clear that neither the Historians writing on this topic nor the twenty five students in my class could agree on whether this aspect of the allied strategy was integral to winning the war. In addition, as Brian Gifford explained in his article in The Globe and Mail, not even Veterans agree about the outcomes of Bomber Command; Gifford’s father, who was a fighter pilot in Bomber Command, has become convinced that some of his missions were a mistake.[ii]

Regardless of whether I agree with the outcome at the War Museum, I have realized that it is through my analysis of this single issue that I have begun to better understand my role as a Public Historian. Writing History is not about attempting to paint the most pleasurable picture of the past, but instead it is the Historian’s responsibility to try to present the past to the public in an honest way. Therefore, the type of Historian I aim to be, is one who pleases the public through the presentation of an interesting but balanced view of the past.

[i] “War Museum to Rework Controversial Bomber Panel” in Arts
[ii] Biran Gifford, “The Bombing of Germany”, in The Globe and Mail, Print Edition 31/08/07 Page A14